Chapter 4
Section 1
Describe how force affects the motion of an object.
Interpret and construct free body diagrams.
A force is an action exerted on an object which may change the object's state of rest or motion.
Forces can cause accelerations.
The SI unit of force is the newton, N.
Forces can act through contact or at a distance.
Force Diagrams
The effect of a force depends on both magnitude and direction.Thus, force is a vector quantity.
Diagrams that show force vectors as arrows are called force diagrams.
Force diagrams that show only the forces acting on a single object are called free-body diagrams.
Section 2
Explain the relationship between the motion of an object and the net external force acting on the object.
Determine the net external force on an object.
Calculate the force required to bring an object into equilibrium.
Newton's First Law
An object at rest remains at rest, and an object in motion continues in motion with constant velocity (that is, constant speed in a straight line) unless the object experiences a net external force.
In other words, when the net external force on an object is zero, the object's acceleration (or the change in the object's velocity) is zero.
Net Force
Newton's first law refers to the net force on an object.The net force is the vector sum of all forces acting on an object.
**The net force on an object can be found by using the methods for finding resultant vectors.
Although several forces are acting on this car, the vector sum of the forces is zero. Thus, the net force is zero, and the car moves at a constant velocity.

Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist a change in speed or direction.
Newton's first law is often referred to as the law of inertia because it states that in the absence of a net force, a body will preserve its state of motion.
Mass is a measure of inertia.
Equilibrium is the state in which the net force on an object is zero.
Objects that are either at rest or moving with constant velocity are said to be in equilibrium.
Newton's first law describes objects in equilibrium.
Tip: To determine whether a body is in equilibrium, find the net force. If the net force is zero, the body is in equilibrium. If there is a net force, a second force equal and opposite to this net force will put the body in equilibrium.

Section 3
Describe an object's acceleration in terms of its mass and the net force acting on it.
Predict the direction and magnitude of the acceleration caused by a known net force.
Identify action-reaction pairs.
Newton's Second Law
The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object and inversely proportional to the object's mass.
ΣF = ma
net force = mass acceleration
**SF represents the vector sum of all external forces acting on the object, or the net force.
Newton's Third Law
If two objects interact, the magnitude of the force exerted on object 1 by object 2 is equal to the magnitude of the force simultaneously exerted on object 2 by object 1, and these two forces are opposite in direction.
In other words, for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Because the forces coexist, either force can be called the action or the reaction.
Action and Reaction Forces
Action-reaction pairs do not imply that the net force on either object is zero.
The action-reaction forces are equal and opposite, but either object may still have a net force on it.
Consider driving a nail into wood with a hammer. The force that the nail exerts on the hammer is equal and opposite to the force that the hammer exerts on the nail. But there is a net force acting on the nail, which drives the nail into the wood.

Section 4
Explain the difference between mass and weight.
Find the direction and magnitude of normal forces.
Describe air resistance as a form of friction.
Use coefficients of friction to calculate frictional force.
The gravitational force (Fg) exerted on an object by Earth is a vector quantity, directed toward the center of Earth.
The magnitude of this force (Fg) is