X in xin Guo
SMS 140
B reaststroke
The breaststroke is one of four strokes used in competitive swimming and also is the oldest known swimming stroke . This stroke is really popular in swimming because it is easy to learn for the beginner and the swimmer can rest between strokes if needed. Swimmers can also use the breaststroke in survival swimming and in lifesaving situations.
When I did the research of the history of breaststroke on the internet , it to ok me back to the stone age , when human was imitating the swimming action of frogs with their legs , tryi ng to move through the water. In the pre-Olympic era, breaststroke became one of the most popular swimming strokes. A t that time period , t he competitive swimming in Europe , which was started around 1800 , mostly swimming by breaststroke. The first time when breaststroke became a stand-alone competitive stroke at the Olympics was the 1904 summer Olympics in St. Louis . It was competed over 440 yards ( 402 m) . That was the first Olympic Game that differentiated breaststroke, backstroke, and freestyle. In 1928, the beginning of the scientific study of swimming was done by David Armbruster, which is a coach at the University of lowa. He found that bringing the arms forward under the water actually slowed the swimmer down considerably . So that a new technique was developed where the hands and arms came back to their starting position over the water. In the early 1950s, many swimmers began to swim breaststroke underwater because they found that swimming underwater increases speed while breaking the water surface increases drag, reducing speed. At the 1956 Melbourne Olympics, Masaru Furukawa , a swimmer from Japan, won the Gold Medal by keeping swimming underwater for the first 3 turns but 5 meters and also half the last lap. Therefore, this cause FINA changed the rules of breaststroke by limiting how far underwater a swimmer could swim during each turn and requiring swimmer have to break the water surface in every swimming cycle. In the 1960 s , FINA changed the rules again to ensure that the arms could not go past the hips except for the first stroke immediately after a start or turn. In the 2000 s , some video from underwater camera in the games showed that some swimmers were performing a dolphin kick off the start and turn. Because these kicks could not be seen above the surface of the water, FINA changed the rules in July 2005, to allow only one dolphin kick at each start and turn.
When learning the breaststroke to a beginner, it is very important to know ever y aspect of the stroke from arm to toe. The arm motions and t he leg motions of the breaststroke are performed simultaneously, moving in opposite directions. There are 3 steps for the arm motions: outsweep, insweep and recovery. The arm motions begin with outsweep by keeping the arms straight at the front of the stroke with the hands turned slightly outwards . The swimmer should keep his elbows high and sweep his arms outwards, focusing on catching as much water as possible with hands. Then, a ccelerate arms backwards, continuing hold the water until the hands and forearm sweep inwards in front of the body. With the elbows tucked in, extend the arms to the front of the stroke, keeping them as close together as possible. For the leg motions, the swimmer should flex the foot and pull the toes towards his shins at the start of the kick w hile keeping his heels as close to the bottom as possible . As swimmer's legs extend outwards and backw ards, pushing the water backwar ds with the soles of the feet will accelerate and propel his body forwards. When the swimmer' s legs straight en and his ankles ca me together , points the toes outward at the end of the kick. To complete the recovery phase of the kick, the swimmer should bend the legs and keep the knees as close together as possible while bringing the heels up towards the bottom. When the swimmer need